magnesium-sulfur relationships in ductile and compacted graphite

Insider's Guide to Cast Iron Welding

In addition to compacted graphite cast iron (CG), which is the fifth type of cast iron but not standardized, CG cast iron has an intermediate microstructure between grey and ductile cast irons. The main difference between the different types of cast irons is the form of carbon in the alloy; the carbon may present as combined carbon such as in carbides, separate, or free graphite.

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diate behavior between gray and ductile irons. Although the existence of compacted graphite irons has been known for many years [4], only in the last decades were they applied to more spe-cific machinery components. This considerable attention was due to

Metallurgical Products Lancaster Foundry Supply

Magnesium treatment is a required step within the production of ductile (DI) iron and compacted (CGI) iron. The primary purpose of introducing magnesium to the molten metal is the formation of spherical graphite, also called spheroids or nodules (DI) and compacted graphite (CGI) respectively.

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte ( OATAO )

Chunky graphite formation in ductile cast irons: effect of silicon, carbon and rare earths Use of rare earths, high silicon and carbon contents, and low cooling rates are reported as possible reasons for for-mation of chunky graphite in ductile iron castings. The un

Ductile Iron Society 1998 Annual Meeting Highlights

sulfur, the amount depending on the percentage of uncombined magnesium that the specific foundry requires for its ductile iron. Comparison of typical strain-life fatigue curves or nodular (ductile), gray, and compacted graphite cast irons. September 1998 45 ie


The magnesium added to the iron first combines with any sulfur present before it will begin changing the graphite shape. (Some experts have maintained that sulfur can be too low {somewhere under .001} in ductile base iron; however, I've never seen that documented to my satisfaction.)

Influence of Different Concentrations of Silicon, Copper

The material presented 10.9% of ductile graphite and 89.1% of compacted graphite, as recommended by ASTM A842-85 21, which admits a minimum percentage of 80% of compacted graphite to consider the alloy as a CGI, not presenting lamellar graphite.


These coatings have been formulated to provide consistent microstructure and metallurgical properties to gray iron, ductile iron, and compacted graphite iron (CGI) casting. These coatings also provide an insulating barrier between the molten iron and the sand core or mold, having a direct effect on cooling rates of the metal, promoting good nodularity.

İnce kesitli paralarda vermikler grafit iin Ti kullanımı

Magnesium-sulfur relationships in ductile and compacted graphite cast irons as influenced by late sulfur additions. I. Riposan, M. Chisamera, R. Kelley, M. Barstow, R.L. Naro. AFS Transactions 03-093 (2003) 1. Article on product of cast iron with vermicular

Insider's Guide to Cast Iron Welding

In addition to compacted graphite cast iron (CG), which is the fifth type of cast iron but not standardized, CG cast iron has an intermediate microstructure between grey and ductile cast irons. The main difference between the different types of cast irons is the form of carbon in the alloy; the carbon may present as combined carbon such as in carbides, separate, or free graphite.

The mechanical and physical properties of Compacted

The mechanical and physical properties of compacted graphite iron (CGI) have been studied. While it is known that CGI provides at least 70% higher tensile strength, 35% higher elastic modulus and 80% higher fatigue limits than conventional grey cast iron, the objective of this paper was to determine how the properties change with varying nodularity (graphite shape) and pearlite content

Graphite Degeneration in Ductile Iron

DEGENERATED GRAPHITE 3.1 TOO LOW Mg Depending on the amount of residual magnesium, there will be compacted (worm, vermicular) graphite or flake graphite. Residual Mg-content 0,025 % leads to more than 50 % compacted graphite (shape III in the figure), with a maximum content of about 100 % at a residual magnesium content of 0,018 %.

Ultrasonic investigation of graphite nodularity in ductile

Ultrasonic investigation of graphite nodularity in ductile cast irons C.H. Gr, B. Aydinmakina Middle East Tech. Univ., Metallurgical and Materials Eng. Dept., Ankara - Turkey Abstract The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of ultrasonic techniques in


Sulfur relationships in Ductile and Compacted Graphite Iron: Sulfur can be both detrimental and beneficial element in ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Sulfur's harmful and benefi cial effects are related to the amount present before magnesium treatment (nodularizing process) as well as its concentration during graphite nucleation.

Compacted Graphite Iron: Part Two :: Total Materia Article

Figure 1: Grey iron, compacted graphite iron and ductile iron are differentiated by the shape of the graphite particles In addition to graphite structure differences, there are significant compositional differences between gray cast iron and CGI which are also largely responsible for the differences in the machinability of these two metals.

Regression Analysis of Thermal Conductivity Based on

Compacted graphite iron (CGI) is a cast iron material that has gained much attention due to its attractive material properties which are intermediate between those of grey and ductile cast iron. In the automotive industry compacted graphite iron has become an interesting alternative material to grey cast iron in components like cylinder blocks or cylinder heads.

Nucleation and Growth of Graphite in Cast Iron

Based on the graphite structure, several types of cast iron can be identified: gray cast iron, compacted graphite cast iron, ductile cast iron, white cast iron and malleable cast iron (Figure 2). From all of them, gray iron (with flake graphite) and ductile iron (with

Cast Iron Types

Compacted graphite iron is beginning to make its presence known in commercial applications. The combination of the properties of gray iron and white iron create a high strength and high thermal conductivity product—suitable for diesel engine blocks and frames, cylinder liners, brake discs for trains, exhaust manifolds, and gear plates in high pressure pumps.


In general, as mentioned in Table-1, there are five basic types : white iron, melleable iron, grey iron, and ductile iron, and compacted graphite iron.In addition, there is a sixth classification, the high alloy irons, generally containing over three percent of added alloy

PART 1 : TYPES OF CAST IRON – Metallurgical Expertise

2019/10/1Compacted graphite cast iron This cast iron too is obtained by adding minimal amounts of special elements such as magnesium, calcium, titanium, or aluminum. The carbon precipitates in the form of compacted flakes (see cast iron diagram, below).

Analysis of the Graphite Shape in Cast Iron Obtaining by

Magnesium-Sulfur Relationships in Ductile and Compacted Graphite Cast Irons as Influenced by Late Sulfur Additions. AFS Transactions. 3(093), 1-15. [18] Imasogie, B.I. Wendt, U. (2004). Characterization of Graphite Particle Shape In Spheroidal Graphite

Ductile Iron Society Research Committee Report Compiled by

Literature search - Deteriorated Graphite Structures on Cast Iron Skins. DIS Literature DIS Research Project No. 17 Sulfur in Molding Sand Effect on Flake Graphite at the Cast Surface of Ductile Iron Castings George DiSylvestro and Robert Christ Ductile Iron

Compacted Graphite Iron with the Addition of Tin

Keywords: Theory of crystallization, Compacted graphite iron, Tin, Cooling and derivative curves 1. Introduction Although the initial attention of the foundry industry focused on ductile iron, efforts began in the early 1960's to develop Com-pacted Graphite Iron

Cast Iron Flashcards

- Low sulfur content (desulfurize) - sulfur causes graphite to form as flakes - Inoculate (add ferrosilicon) to promote graphite formation instead of cementite - Nodulize (introduce magnesium) to promote formation of graphite spheres Ductile cast iron - concerns with


For many foundries, the aim is to use magnesium treatment ductile iron and add something to denodularize it. The idea of adding FeS in association with a silicon base inoculant to reduce the magnesium and to improve the graphite nucleation is a possibility.

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